A directional term meaning toward the center of the body or body part. Conversely, rotation of the limb so that the anterior surface moves away from the midline is lateral (external) rotation (see Figure 3). Flexion and extension. Similarly, elevation of the mandible is the upward movement of the lower jaw used to close the mouth or bite on something, and depression is the downward movement that produces opening of the mouth (see Figure 6). Etymology: from Modern Latin caudalis, from Latin cauda, "tail of an animal"; caud, "tail" or "lower part of the body" + -al, "referring to, pertaining to". (a) Supination of the forearm turns the hand to the palm forward position in which the radius and ulna are parallel, while forearm pronation turns the hand to the palm backward position in which the radius crosses over the ulna to form an “X.” (b) Dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle joint moves the top of the foot toward the leg, while plantar flexion lifts the heel and points the toes. It is usually used to indicate the position in relation to another organ or structure and may mean that it is ‘in front of’ another organ or structure. Medial means that a body part is nearer than another part to an imaginary midline of the body. The nose is a median structure. Rotation of the neck or body is the twisting movement produced by the summation of the small rotational movements available between adjacent vertebrae. lateral. These are the only movements available at the ankle joint (see Figure 4). This crossing over brings the radius and ulna into an X-shape position. Caudal is the opposite of cephalic. Median: At the midline of the body. Deep: Away from the exterior surface or further into the body… Opposition is the thumb movement that brings the tip of the thumb in contact with the tip of a finger. Term. Cephalic -towards the head, caudal-towards the feet, anterior/ ventral means the front of body, posterior/dorsal is the back of the body. nearer to the point of attachment or to a given. Flexion and extension are movements that take place within the sagittal plane and involve anterior or posterior movements of the body or limbs. For the thumb, abduction is the anterior movement that brings the thumb to a 90° perpendicular position, pointing straight out from the palm. Uniaxial joint; allows rotational movement, Atlantoaxial joint (C1–C2 vertebrae articulation); proximal radioulnar joint, Uniaxial joint; allows flexion/extension movements, Knee; elbow; ankle; interphalangeal joints of fingers and toes, Biaxial joint; allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and circumduction movements, Metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints of fingers; radiocarpal joint of wrist; metatarsophalangeal joints for toes, First carpometacarpal joint of the thumb; sternoclavicular joint, Multiaxial joint; allows inversion and eversion of foot, or flexion, extension, and lateral flexion of the vertebral column, Intertarsal joints of foot; superior-inferior articular process articulations between vertebrae, Multiaxial joint; allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, and medial/lateral rotation movements, Define the different types of body movements, Identify the joints that allow for these motions. Pronation is the motion that moves the forearm from the supinated (anatomical) position to the pronated (palm backward) position. Abduction and adduction are motions of the limbs, hand, fingers, or toes in the coronal (medial–lateral) plane of movement. The cephalic end of the embryonic neural tube develops into the brain. Supination is the opposite motion, in which rotation of the radius returns the bones to their parallel positions and moves the palm to the anterior facing (supinated) position. Adduction moves the thumb back to the anatomical position, next to the index finger. Figure 6. posterior (dorsal) toward the back of the body. term that describes the structures of the body located above a particular structure The abdominal area is the region between the chest and the pelvis. It is important to understand that directional terms have relative meanings, they make sense only when used to describe the position of one structure relative to another. For example, superior means toward the upper part of the body, and inferior means toward the lower part of the body. Synovial joints allow the body a tremendous range of movements. Lateral means that a body part is farther away from the midline. Medial and lateral rotation of the upper limb at the shoulder or lower limb at the hip involves turning the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body (medial or internal rotation) or away from the midline (lateral or external rotation). 3. Supination and pronation are the movements of the forearm that go between these two positions. Toward the lower part of the body. cephalic (suh FAHL ik) 1. Vs. • Posterior: means toward the back (the pharynx is posterior to the oral cavity) - [dorsal]. Term. (a) Depression of the mandible opens the mouth, while elevation closes it. For the thumb, extension moves the thumb away from the palm of the hand, within the same plane as the palm, while flexion brings the thumb back against the index finger or into the palm. Posterior: Closer to the rear. Abnormal development or growth, especially of cells. Hyperextension is the abnormal or excessive extension of a joint beyond its normal range of motion, thus resulting in injury. For example, superior means toward the upper part of the body, and inferior means toward the lower part of the body. Term. Readers have the ease to analyze the anatomical position of the body parts with these directional terms. hyperplasia. ANTERIOR (VENTRAL) Definition. (Anterior means closer to the front of the body.) Superior rotation is also used without arm abduction when carrying a heavy load with your hand or on your shoulder. The bridge of the nose is medial to the eyes. Similarly, abduction and adduction at the wrist moves the hand away from or toward the midline of the body. The term dorsal has a similar meaning as posterior. The terms proximal and distal are used in structures that are considered to have a beginning and an end (such as the upper limb, lower limb and blood vessels). The upward movement of the scapula and shoulder is elevation, while a downward movement is depression.

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